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The action mechanisms of piracetam are still vaguely understandable even though various clinical and experimental studies have been conducted. Nevertheless, this remarkable smart drug is used for the modulation of membrane fluidity. As a consequence, it demonstrates certain effects on the release of neurotransmitters and receptor binding. It also results in improved cell functioning and better viscosity of cell membranes. In addition, piracetam “appears to reduce erythrocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, hinder vasospasm, and facilitate microcirculation” (Winblad, 2005) at a vascular level. Moreover, it is also known to have an involvement in the activation of acetylcholine, which helps the brain to take up oxygen with improved blood flow. Piracetam is also considered a great promoter of information transference from one brain hemisphere to the other. It enhances motor planning by creating a coordination between both hemispheres.


Although many nootropics companies market their products as dietary supplements, Nootroo maintains that its pills aren’t supplements; instead, they are labeled “for neuroscience research only.” The company has so far avoided regulation by the FDA, and like many nootropics purveyors, it inhabits a regulatory and scientific gray area. Few ironclad studies on nootropics exist, and there’s no clear path for bringing them to market.

When buying smart drugs also consider cost. Powders are much cheaper than tablets and a great deal if already know what works best for you and need it in bulk. If you’re in the experimental stage you are better off buying tablets in as small a quantity as available to try.

Acute-onset smart drugs (that precipitate a certain state of mind in a predictable short-term) can be hugely handy if you know what you’ll be doing and how you want to be behaving.  (Example: “I know I need to get 10 hours worth of focused work done.  How can I minimize my likelihood to get distracted?”)

One reason I like modafinil is that it enhances dopamine release, but it binds to your dopamine receptors differently than addictive substances like cocaine and amphetamines do, which may be part of the reason modafinil shares many of the benefits of other stimulants but doesn’t cause addiction or withdrawal symptoms. [3] [4] It does increase focus, problem-solving abilities, and wakefulness, but it is not in the same class of drugs as Adderall, and it is not a classical stimulant. Modafinil is off of patent, so you can get it generically, or order it from India. It’s a prescription drug, so you need to talk to a physician.

The following are the safest and most widely appreciated substances for improving your mental function. “Smart Drugs & Nutrients” was the term coined in the book by the same name authored by Ward Dean, MD and John Morgenthaler.

Tianeptine acts significantly on both the dopamine and serotonin receptors of the brain, causing a large boost in both the user’s mood and motivation. Tianeptine stacks great with stimulants and other racetams, it can both energize you, and help you sleep depending on its use.

Walters: Okay. And what you’re saying is a drug that may help somebody with Alzheimer’s or that may even help someone who has dyslexia, or if we find that is not necessarily going to be good for someone with a healthy mind.

Since that time, other labs throughout the world have begun to produce it. It is an extremely cost-effective non-prescription alternative for those desiring the wakefulness and mental clarity provided by Modafinil.

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Piracetam is a cognitive enhancer and memory enhancing supplement. Many people across the world use the nootropic, piracetam, to effectively retain knowledge and improve memory. Piracetam is utilized by both younger and older healthy individuals. From recent and past clinical studies and research, Piracetam has been determined to support memory and aid individuals experiencing memory loss and difficulties in the ability to retain knowledge. Piracetam may enhance, elevate, and improve cognitive functions and abilities linked and associated to the central nervous system, memory development and memory processes. Piracetam may benefit with senile dementia, dyslexia, alcoholism & withdrawal syndrome, acute ischemic stroke, circulatory disorders, heart disease, Raynaud’s, alzheimer’s disease, cortical myoclonus, obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Piracetam is a nootropic nutraceutical that may improve and enhance memory and other intellectual functions. Piracetam is commonly prescribed for cognitive impairment and dementia in several countries of continental Europe. In a thorough clinical study and examination done by N. N. Zavadenko and L. S. Guzilova, piracetam was found to have positive therapeutic effects on impairments to the higher mental (memory, attention, executive) and motor (coordination) functions and on measures of the speeds of cognitive and motor operations. The nootropic substance, piracetam, has been studied in countless widespread clinical experiments. Piracetam has demonstrated inarguable results in the treatment of post-stroke aphasia, epilepsy, cognitive decline following heart and brain surgery, dementia, and myoclonus. Piracetam’s vascular effect has designated its use for patients suffering from vertigo, dyslexia, and sickle-cell anemia.

I appreciated the music I was listening to (Caspian), and I appreciated the video I was working on (I tend to be skeptical when I watch my work). Things seemed more beautiful today. It’s also a beautiful fall day.

^ Jump up to: a b c Chatterjie N, Stables JP, Wang H, Alexander GJ (August 2004). “Anti-narcoleptic agent modafinil and its sulfone: a novel facile synthesis and potential anti-epileptic activity”. Neurochemical Research. 29 (8): 1481–6. doi:10.1023/b:nere.0000029559.20581.1a. PMID 15260124.

One second-year student from Cambridge University, who asked to remain anonymous, said: “I know quite a few people who have used study drugs, including several of my housemates and friends. They all tend to take Modafinil rather than either Ritalin or Adderall … given the sheer volume and quality of work expected of people here, I would be unsurprised if my college is representative of the university as a whole.”

Modup, a website selling Modafinil, told the Guardian that during exam time the volume of Modafinil shipped to the UK doubles. It claimed the campuses it mainly sent stock to were Oxford and Cambridge, followed by the London institutions Imperial and the London School of Economics.

Jump up ^ Ballon JS, Feifel D (April 2006). “A systematic review of modafinil: Potential clinical uses and mechanisms of action”. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 67 (4): 554–66. doi:10.4088/jcp.v67n0406. PMID 16669720.

The seizure, worth £200,000, illustrates the increasing internet trade in cognitive enhancement drugs and suggests people who want to stay focused and sharp are moving on from black coffee and legally available caffeine tablets.

Pramiracetam, also known as CI-879, is another chemical relative to piracetam, and has a similar effect in improving the operations of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Like oxiracetam, pramiracetam appears to be more potent than piracetam. Although pramiracetam seems to be more potent and effective, it is less common than piracetam. Pramiracetam is newer, less tested, and less available.

Nootropics (Smart Drugs) follow two important rules to classify them in the category. Firstly, they must be non-psychoactive, meaning they do not noticeably alter perception or behavior. They should not cause impairment or any sort of noticeable change to actions or thoughts when used at the proper dosages. Keep in mind, that everyone reacts differently, so these rules are meant to be an overall guideline.

My score before starting this process was 545.658 in Verbal Learning with Replacement. This test requires you to recall a series of words. But my score dipped to 515.358 today, possibly because I was tired.

Human growth hormone is approved by the FDA for the physician-supervised treatment of unusually short children, meaning that it is available by doctor’s prescription. Because of its muscle-building propensities, hGH is in considerable demand among athletes, many of whom consider it a legal and relatively safe alternative to anabolic steroids.

You can also try armodafinil, which is a more purified form of modafinil with only biologically identical molecules in it. It has nearly identical and sometimes stronger effects. It’s very expensive without insurance.

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established.[43] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[44]

Tsambis: We’re studying it. And I think that’s the important part, that people need to know that if they are going to take something in our research center, that it is to validate the efficacy of the substance, and we’re not promoting that it actually does have beneficial effects.

Though it is typically prescribed for ADHD and ADD sufferers, the underground market for this nootropic is expansive. For those with ADHS, the drug serves to calm them down. But non-sufferers experience entirely different results. As the chemical enters the brain, it causes individuals to focus and can increase cognitive capacity.

Readers need to be careful with Adderall, however. Just like with any stimulant, Adderall can be incredibly addictive. With ravenous withdrawal symptoms at every turn, users need to be careful about how and when they access this often illegal substance.

A number of so-called ‘smart drugs’ or cognitive enhancers have captured attention recently, from stimulants such as modafinil, to amphetamines (often prescribed under the name Adderall) and methylphenidate (also known by its brand name Ritalin). According to widespread news reports, students have begun using these drugs to enhance their performance in school and college, and are continuing to do so in their professional lives.

Dr. Dean: First, you’re correct that the books were, in essence, ‘technical manuals.’  I wrote them for my patients, to save my time and theirs, in explaining various cognitive-enhancing drugs and nutrients that I was recommending for them.  Although I initially planned a press run of about 500 copies, John Morgenthaler, my co-author and publisher had grander visions.  As a result of his creative publicity and marketing skills, the books sold in excess of 250,000 copies each. We had obviously hit a sensitive nerve; we discovered that there was a large number of people out there-more than just my patients- who were concerned about their cognitive processes and memory.  These were people of all ages, most of whom weren’t suffering from a ‘senile’ dementia–they just weren’t as sharp as knew they could and should be-or had formerly been-and therefore received no advice or treatment.  By publicizing the available cognitive enhancing drugs and nutrients, and explaining their mechanisms of action, dosages, and sources, we’ve been able to help people who were clinically cognitively impaired, as well as those who were considered to be ‘normal.’ The appropriate use of an assortment of various cognitive enhancing drugs and nutrients has improved the memory of many people, and taken them to new levels of alertness, cognition, attention and focus.  It’s been very gratifying to hear stories of those whose lives were completely turned around with the use of these nutrients and drugs.  And at the same time, I wonder if the producers of the movie ‘Limitless’ weren’t among the readers of my books!