10. Modafinil – whether we like it or not, modafinil is here to stay. It may still be illegal to use without a prescription in the USA and many other countries, but more people are being introduced to modafinil than ever before. Even “bad” publicity, such as this mischaracterized BBC documentary, has brought smart drugs and modafinil specifically into the limelight.
-Piracetam alleviates the Paranoia that often occurs during the progression of Alzheimers Disease. Dean, W. & Morgenthaler, J. Smart Drugs & Nutrients. B & J Publications, Santa Cruz, California, USA. 1990:45
To select the right nutrients, Matzner wrote a web script to automatically download studies of interesting compounds, which he stockpiled in various Dropbox folders. For harder-to-get research, he emailed German libraries and corresponded with the Russian nootropics pioneer Rita Ostrovskaya.
The first time I took psilocybin I was microdosing without knowing it. I ate one truffle nodule to see how it would taste (a bit like licking a battery, as it happens) and the subtle effects became obvious after about 20 minutes.
There are wider societal implications to consider when debating this issue, such as whether the use of smart drugs will only serve to further widen the achievement gap between those who are more advantaged than others.
Users report Modafinil not only provides them with a natural feeling of mental wakefulness, but also promotes motivation, focus and concentration. For many users, productivity increases, projects are begun and completed, and staying on task not only becomes easier – it becomes more like a directive.
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed psychostimulant and is indicated in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, although off-label uses include…
Its short-term effects include improved memory, recall and learning capacity, with the intensity varying from user to user. One might recall their dreams vividly, or notice a significant increase in productivity, energy and motivation. Moreover, it can affect linguistic processing and verbal fluency, so is popular among people who wish to be able to think on their feet more quickly.
Unfortunately, there’s a drawback. Doctors in Britain can only prescribe modafinil for narcolepsy or chronic fatigue. Most users buy it online, which is legal if the pharmacy is based abroad. These pills aren’t regulated, however, and that means they aren’t always safe. A study by the European Alliance for Access to Safe Medicines found that 62 per cent of products bought online were ‘fake, substandard or unapproved’.
In mice and rats, the median lethal dose (LD50) of modafinil is approximately or slightly greater than 1250 mg/kg. Oral LD50 values reported for rats range from 1000–3400 mg/kg. Intravenous LD50 for dogs is 300 mg/kg. Clinical trials on humans involving taking up to 1200 mg/day for 7–21 days and known incidents of acute one-time overdoses up to 4500 mg did not appear to cause life-threatening effects, although a number of adverse experiences were observed, including excitation or agitation, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, aggressiveness, confusion, nervousness, tremor, palpitations, sleep disturbances, nausea, and diarrhea. As of 2004, the FDA is not aware of any fatal overdoses involving modafinil alone (as opposed to multiple drugs including modafinil).
Sarkar, A. K., Ghosh, D., Haldar, D., Sarkar, P., Gupta, B., Dastidar, S. G., et al. (2012). A rapid LC–ESI-MS/MS method for the quantitation of choline, an active metabolite of citicoline: Application to in vivo pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study in Indian healthy male volunteers. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 71, 144-147.